Quiz Questions

Chapter Eleven

1. The song “Oye Como Va”

a. is rooted in Cuban musical traditions
b. was composed by a musician who identified himself ethnically and culturally as being principally Puerto Rican
c. was composed in the United States
d. all of the above

2. Which of the following is NOT associated with carnival traditions of Brazil or Trinidad?

a. samba batucada
b. steel band
c. tropicália
d. samba-enredo

3. The bossa nova style of guitar playing in which samba-derived percussion rhythms are applied to the guitar is called

a. berimbau
b. batida
c. bandoneón
d. favelas

4. Brazilian tropicália musicians of the late 1960s

a. embraced and “cannibalized” foreign popular musical influences
b. rejected and “cannibalized” foreign popular musical influences
c. supported the U.S.-supported totalitarian regime in Brazil
d. B and C, but not A

5. Astor Piazzolla became famous for

a. popularizing the tango in the 1920s-1930s and being a master of the guitar
b. dancing the tango in a Hollywood movie while playing the violin
c. developing a new style of tango music and being a master of the bandoneón
d. all of the above

6. Julajula panpipe music

a. features interlocking textures
b. emphasizes both ensemble and solo performance styles
c. reflects ideals of social interdependence
d. A and C, but not B

7. Andean folkloric music is a modernist-cosmpolitan tradition

a. that developed largely in cities like Buenos Aires and Paris
b. that developed mainly in remote ayllus of the Bolivian and Peruvian Andes
c. in which only certain instruments are used during certain seasons of the year
d. but one that avoids all forms of commodification and commercialization

8. Mariachi music

a. has become a symbol of Mexican identity
b. incorporates elements from many different musical styles and traditions
c. has been used to perpetuate negative stereotypes
d. all of the above

9. Because of differing patterns in the institution of slavery

a. African American blues sounds more “African” than Afro-Cuban music
b. Afro-Cuban music sounds more “African” than African American blues
c. Latin dance in Cuba looks different than Latin dance in North America
d. A and C only

10. A secular, traditional Cuban dance music that features singing, conga drums, other Latin percussion instruments, and an often “flirtatious” style of dancing is

a. Regla de Ocha
b. batucada
c. rumba
d. merengue

11. The batá drums are principally associated with religious rituals and musical traditions of the ____________ religion.

a. Santería
b. Conguero
c. Timbalero
d. Mambolo

12. __________ is the rhythmic basis of virtually all forms of Cuban-derived Latin dance music.

a. Clave
b. Conga
c. Charanga
d. Salsa

13. In 18th century Cuba, creolized dance-music styles emerged partly because

a. white Cubans saw them as viable alternatives to outmoded European dances of the time like the waltz and the mazurka
b. black Cubans were no longer interested in dancing the rumba
c. slaves of African descent were forced to perform such dances by members of the white, Spanish-Cuban establishment
d. B and C, but not A

14. The danzón, Cuba’s “national dance” of the 1920s, was accompanied by an ensemble called

a. bata
b. timbalero
c. charanga
d. son

15. Because of the influence of Cuban son music, charanga groups that specialized in playing the danzón

a. faded from popularity until the charanga tradition essentially disappeared
b. eliminated all Afro-Cuban elements from their music and played traditional European dances like the waltz and the mazurka exclusively
c. were inspired to incorporate more Afro-Cuban elements into their danzón arrangements
d. relocated from Cuba to Miami beginning in the 1920s, where they established a thriving charanga scene that survives to the present

16. Enrique Jorrin created the cha cha chá with the intention of

a. devising a Cuban dance-music style that would appeal to non-Cuban dancers
b. creating a more thoroughly Afro-Cuban style of dance music than son
c. catering to the growing population of Puerto Rican immigrants in Cuba
d. all of the above

17. The cha cha chá style of Enrique Jorrin

a. was rhythmically complex and featured fast tempos
b. was relatively simple rhythmically and featured moderate tempos
c. featured dance songs played in free rhythm, with no discernible beat
d. was entirely instrumental, with no singing

18. During the 1950s, after the international dance craze for cha cha chá had passed,

a. the dance was abandoned
b. New York Latin bandleaders adopted and adapted it, blending it with elements of big band mambo
c. bossa-cha cha, a synthesis of cha cha chá and Brazilian bossa nova, became the basis of a new international dance phenomenon
d. Enrique Jorrin became the violinist for Tito Puente’s band in New York

19. Which of the following was NOT a feature of 1950s mambo?

a. layered ostinatos
b. big band instrumentation
c. rock influences
d. fast tempos

20. During the 1950s, dancing at the Palladium Ballroom

a. was racially segregated
b. was racially integrated
c. was often accompanied by bands led by the so-called “mambo kings”: Tito Puente, Machito, and Tito Rodríguez
d. B and C, but not A

21. In arrangements like Tito Puente’s “Oye Como Va,” 1950s Latin bandleaders fused the cha cha chá with the

a. maraca
b. mambo
c. rumba
d. clave

22. Compared to more traditional Cuban cha cha chá numbers like Enrique Jorrin’s “El Bodeguero,” cha cha chá numbers like Tito Puente’s “Oye Como Va” tended to be

a. slightly faster in tempo
b. less syncopated
c. softer in dynamic level
d. less intense

23. The first Santana arrangement that fused rock and Latin dance music was

a. “Oye Como Va”
b. “Evil Ways”
c. “Black Magic Woman”
d. “Europa”

24. Carlos Santana was born in

a. Cuba
b. Puerto Rico
c. The United States
d. Mexico

25. According to Carlos Santana, he decided to play “Oye Como Va” because

a. it would inspire people to dance
b. it would fight against the influence of rock-and-roll
c. it would become a symbol of pan-Latino identity
d. he thought that if he did, Tito Puente might join his band

26. After Santana’s “Oye Como Va”

a. the music of Tito Puente was forgotten
b. Tito Puente earned very little money from royalties on the song
c. Tito Puente began to get more widespread recognition
d. A and B, but not C

27. Tito Puente Jr.’s version of “Oye Como Va” (the example on your CD set)

a. rejects the rock influences of the Santana version and represents a return to the more traditional
sound of his father’s original recorded version
b. does not use any electronic instruments
c. introduces novel elements and rhythmic grooves while also incorporating elements from both the original Tito Puente version and the Santana version of the song
d. features a very impressive electric guitar solo played by Carlos Santana

Listening

1. Listen to “Sambia” (disk 4, track 6), then indicate the best answer for each of the following questions.

The instrumentation for this piece features

a. a small jazz combo
b. bata drums with trumpets
c. trumpets, trombones, saxophones, and a rhythmic section
d. steel drums

Answer: c

2. The musical texture features

a. layered ostinatos
b. chords and chord progressions
c. little emphasis on singing
d. all of the above

Answer: d

3. Listen to “Oye Como Va” by Tito Puente (disk 4, track 7), then indicate the best answer for each of the following questions.

The dance rhythm of this piece is a

a. charanga
b. cha cha cha
c. samba
d. maraca

Answer: b

4. A clear link to charanga is heard in the solo playing of the

a. flute
b. trombone
c. organ
d. bass

Answer: a

5. This piece is

a. in a major key
b. in a minor key
c. based on a pentatonic scale
d. based on the Dorian scale

Answer: b

6. Riffs are played on all of these instruments EXCEPT

a. saxophones
b. trumpets
c. organ
d. guiro

Answer: d

Essay

1. Describe the development of Mexican mariachi music. What are the origins of this style and how has it changed over the years? Explain how mariachi songs have come to represent Mexico and its people in both positive and negative ways.

2. Why was the development of the danzón an important factor in developing a Cuban identity? How does the danzónmambo differ from the danzón?

3. What was the underlying motivation in the creation of the cha cha chá? How is this different from other Cuban music and dance styles?

4. What are some distinctive features of 1950s mambo music? What events caused the decreased popularity of the mambo and Latin music in general?

5. Discuss how “Oye Como Va” (disk 4, tracks 7, 8 and 10) relates to the emergence of a pan-Latino identity. How does this identity extend beyond Latinos who are living in the United States?