Quiz Questions

Chapter Seven

1. __________ is the generic term for mainly percussion-based ensembles of Bali, Java, and other islands of Indonesia.

a. Gamelan
b. Gangsa
c. Banjar
d. Beleganjur

2. Balinese Hinduism is a blend of Hinduism and

a. Islam
b. Buddhism
c. indigenous spiritual beliefs
d. B and C, but not A

3. The indigenous peoples of Bali who do not practice Hinduism are known as the __________, meaning “original Balinese.”

a. Agama Tirta
b. Bali Aga
c. Bahasa Indonesia
d. Wayang Kulit

4. Central Javanese court gamelan and Balinese gamelan gong kebyar are similar because

a. they share a basis in cyclic musical forms
b. they have related types of instruments
c. they sound almost identical
d. A and B, but not C

5. The “shimmering” quality of the instruments in gamelan gong kebyar is due to

a. cyclic musical forms
b. rapid-fire melodies
c. paired tuning of instruments
d. interlocking drum patterns

6. The kilitan telu interlocking rhythms in Balinese gamelan are described in the chapter as being symbolic of

a. unity in diversity
b. Balinese cultural values of communal interdependence
c. the Balinese three-part conception of the universe
d. the religion of Holy Water

7. The Balinese dance-drama Kecak

a. enacts scenes from a Hindu epic called the Ramayana
b. employs a gamelan suara “voice gamelan”
c. uses no music instruments (other than voices)
d. all of the above

8. The root foundation of beleganjur music is a gong cycle

a. of eight beats called gilak
b. of 16 beats called ketawang
c. of male and female beats called ombak
d. all of the above

9. The function of the gamelan beleganjur in cremation rituals is

a. to intimidate and drive away evil spirits
b. to show off tradition and innovation in composition
c. to win a competition
d. all of the above

10. In the Balinese caste system, 90 percent of Balinese belong to the ___________ caste.

a. priestly
b. warrior
c. merchant
d. commoner

11. The word banjar refers to

a. the Balinese cremation ceremony
b. the soul of the deceased
c. a Balinese neighborhood organization
d. sacred verses sung by men and women

12. Which instruments “direct” gamelan ensembles by signaling changes in tempo and cueing new musical sections?

a. gongs
b. drums
c. cymbals
d. metallophones

13. In cremation ceremonies, beleganjur music is used as a “weapon”

a. to intimidate and drive away evil spirits such as bhutas and leyaks
b. to scatter street dogs that customarily interfere with the procession
c. to keep people from rival, neighboring banjars out of the procession
d. all of the above

14. Whenever a Balinese funeral procession reaches a crossroad

a. the cremation tower is carried straight through without being turned
b. the beleganjur music increases in volume and intensity
c. an angel gets his wings
d. soft and gentle music is played

15. The contest musical style called kreasi beleganjur become popular in

a. ancient times
b. the late 19th century
c. the 1930s
d. the mid-1980s

16. The main goal of a group competing in a beleganjur contest (lomba beleganjur) is

a. to serve the religious function of the event
b. to impress the judges and audience by eliminating all traces of conventional, traditional beleganjur musical style
c. to impress the judges and audience by adhering strictly to the conventions of classic, traditional beleganjur music
d. to impress the judges and audience by balancing tradition and innovation within the context of a virtuosic performance medium

17. Choreographed sequences in kreasi beleganjur compositions are called _________.

a. gilak
b. gerak
c. gangsa
d. gong ageng

18. Kreasi beleganjur places a high value on

a. compositional originality
b. showmanship
c. varied textures
d. all of the above

19. The kreasi beleganjur composer I Ketut Suandita is well known for

a. his innovative approach to beleganjur composition
b. winning Bali’s most prestigious beleganjur competition in three consecutive years
c. composing works that are creative but do not lose sight of beleganjur’s traditional roots
d. all of the above

20. The first well-known Western composer to become fascinated with gamelan music was

a. Claude Debussy
b. John Cage
c. Lou Harrison
d. Benjamin Britten

21. I Wayan Balawan is famous for his skills as

a. a Balinese gambuh dancer
b. a kreasi beleganjur composer
c. a Balinese kendang drummer and gamelan director
d. an electric guitarist

22. The piece “B.A.Ph.Pet”

a. was composed by I Ketut Suandita for a beleganjur contest
b. is a humorous children’s piece for solo piano composed by Claude Debussy
c. features a hip-hop DJ performing as the scratch turntable soloist in a context that also uses Balinese gamelan and other instruments
d. was premiered on the same concert as John Cage’s 4’33”

Listening

1. “Jaya Semara” (Disk 2, track 12) is an example of

a. gamelan jegog
b. gamelan beleganjur
c. gamelan gong kebyar
d. gamelan suara

Answer: c

2. “Jaya Semara” (Disk 2, track 12) differs from Javanese gamelan because of its

a. cyclic musical form
b. types of instruments (bronze gongs and metallophones.
c. shimmering timbre and rapid-fire melody
d. multipart textures in which higher pitched instruments play at faster rhythmic rates than the lower-pitched instruments

Answer: c

3. A term used in Bali to describe interlocking patterns such as the ones heard in “Kecak” (disk 2, track 13) is

a. kecak
b. kebyar
c. kreasi
d. kilitan telu

Answer: d

4. “Kecak” (disk 2, track 13) is

a. a theatrical enactment of the Balinese origin myth
b. taken from a funeral procession
c. an excerpt of people singing sacred verses (kidung)
d. a theatrical enactment of an episode from the Ramayana

Answer: d

5. The music heard in “Beleganjur” (disk 2, track 11)

a. is rooted in battles of good versus evil
b. features a gong cycle
c. features kilitan telu
d. all of the above

Answer: d

6. The performance on disk 2, track 14, Beleganjur in cremation procession, features

a. innovative composition and virtuosity
b. music designed to frighten away evil spirits
c. choreographed gerak movements
d. all of the above

Answer: b

7. The function of “Wira Ghorava Cakti ‘95” (disk 2, track 16) is to

a. impress judges
b. show compositional originality
c. embolden the spirit of the deceased
d. A and B only

Answer: d

8. The basic kilitan telu pattern heard in much Balinese music (and musically illustrated in the chapter’s Musical Guided Tour) is

a. x – x x – x x –
b. x x x – x x x –
c. x – x – x – x –
d. x x – x x – x x

Answer: a

Essay

1. Discuss the various musical layers of the gamelan beleganjur which can be heard on disk 2, track 11. How do the interlocking rhythms relate to other aspects of Balinese life?

2. How does the gamelan beleganjur function in relation to Balinese cosmology? Has this role changed over time?

3. Describe the difference between beleganjur music in a cremation ceremony and beleganjur music in a modern contest.

4. How has Balinese music crossed international borders and spread to the West? Explain how some Balinese musicians have been influenced by Western music to create new forms of music.